Les coûts d’exploitation des camions au gaz subissent une forte inflation
Par Ibrahima DIALLO
11 août 2022 / 19:00

La hausse du prix du gaz carburant renchérit les coûts d’exploitation des poids lourds utilisant cette source d’énergie. La rentabilité économique de ces véhicules, par rapport aux camions fonctionnant au gasoil, est plus difficile à atteindre, selon le Comité national routier. Cet écart s’accroît avec la baisse actuelle du prix du diesel. 

Le site internet du Comité national routier (CNR) diffuse un indice sur le coût du gaz naturel pour véhicule (GNV) depuis 2019. Cet indicateur est complété, depuis quelques semaines, par des statistiques sur les conditions et les coûts d’exploitation des poids lourds fonctionnant avec cette source d’énergie.

“Le modèle économique initial d’un camion au GNV, comparé à celui d’un poids lourd au gasoil, se résume à un véhicule plus cher à l’achat, assorti d’un coût de carburant inférieur.

Sur des kilométrages annuels importants, un camion au gaz naturel comprimé (GNC) en particulier, était plus compétitif que son homologue au gasoil jusqu’à présent”, explique le CNR. Cet avantage concurrentiel était estimé à 7,8 % par tonne-km transportée jusqu’en 2020.

Un coût d’exploitation supérieur de 7,2% 

Or, “l’inflation inédite des prix du gaz, initiée mi-2021 et amplifiée par la guerre en Ukraine depuis le 24 février 2022, a changé la donne car le prix du gasoil a augmenté moins vite”. Depuis quelques semaines, celui du diesel enregistre même une baisse.

Selon le CNR, le prix du GNV aurait progressé de plus de 70 % depuis le début de l’année. Les coûts d’exploitation d’un camion au GNC, utilisé sur un parcours régional, seraient désormais supérieurs de 7,2 % à ceux d’un véhicule diesel comparable.

Les nouvelles statistiques du Comité national routier sur les poids lourds GNV s’accompagnent d’informations économiques sur ces véhicules, vouées à être mises à jour de façon régulière. On y découvre que le prix moyen des tracteurs routiers alimentés au gaz naturel liquéfié (GNL) est de 130.457 euros et que celui des tracteurs roulant au GNC est de 113.152 euros, hors aides financières publiques.

L’entretien et la maintenance de ces véhicules coûteraient entre 6,6 et 6,7 centimes au kilomètre. La consommation moyenne serait de 27,2 kg de gaz aux 100 km pour les moteurs au GNL, et de 30,7 kg pour les camions fonctionnant au GNC. Le CNR publie une note comparative avec tous les coûts d’exploitation des poids lourds diesels équivalents.

Une demi-heure pour avitailler en gaz 

Un autre volet de ses travaux concerne les conditions d’exploitation et la commercialisation du transport routier de marchandises avec une flotte au GNV.

Sa base de données montre que la durée moyenne d’avitaillement est de 18 minutes et celle d’attente à une station d’un quart d’heure. Le réseau national d’avitaillement en gaz carburant s’est fortement densifié puisque la distance moyenne pour rallier une station serait de 10 km pour faire un plein en GNC et de 41 km en GNL.

“85 % des transporteurs possèdent au moins un contrat avec un fournisseur de gaz carburant”, précise le CNR. Dans plus de 70 % des cas, l’investissement d’un opérateur dans un poids lourd GNV est réalisé à la demande d’un ou plusieurs clients.

Enfin, la mention en “pied de facture” des variations de charges de carburant des transporteurs n’est pratiquée qu’à 60 % dans le cas du GNL et à 80 % pour le GNC. 

“Cette pratique est nettement plus courante concernant les camions fonctionnant au gasoil pour lesquels elle est appliquée à 96 %”, souligne le CNR. Le site internet de ce dernier propose aussi un inventaire des aides financières publiques destinées aux transporteurs pour acquérir des véhicules propulsés au GNV.

Station GNV sur le port de Gennevilliers © Total énergies “Dans plus de 70 % des cas, l’investissement des transporteurs dans un poids lourd « GNV » est réalisé à la demande d’un ou plusieurs clients” .

 

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