Guerre Russie-Ukraine : le plus grand pipeline d’Afrique devrait transiter via la Tunisie
Par Ibrahima DIALLO
10 May 2022 / 16:01

La guerre en Ukraine n’est pas sans conséquences et partout dans le monde la crise énergétique commence à impacter considérablement les continents. L’Afrique n’est pas épargnée mais pourrait se substituer en une plaque tournante énergétique surtout avec ses divers projets de construction d’oléoducs et de gazoducs dans plusieurs pays.

Les pays africains producteurs d’hydrocarbures jouissent d’une excellente opportunité pour approvisionner le reste du monde en gaz naturel liquéfié avec la forte demande en GNL enregistrée.

Les pays d’Afrique subsaharienne peuvent hausser leurs exportations de GNL à 60 millions de tonnes par an d’ici 2025 et les porter à  74 millions de tonnes supplémentaires par an d’ici 2030 selon un rapport de la chambre africaine de l’énergie. Pour ce faire, bon nombre de pipelines et projets de gazoducs seront mis en place.

Le gazoduc transméditerranéen (Transmed), qui constitue l’un des plus grands d’Afrique, s’étend sur 2 475 km, transportant le gaz de l’Algérie vers l’Italie via la Tunisie et la Sicile.

Avec une construction commençant en 1978 et une mise en service en 1983, Transmed est le plus long réseau international de gazoducs au monde, disposant d’une capacité de 110 millions de mètres cubes par jour. Toutefois, Transmed n’en transporte que 60 millions de mètres cubes.

À la suite de la guerre russo-ukrainienne en cours, la compagnie énergétique italienne, Eni, et la compagnie pétrolière publique algérienne, Sonatrach, se sont accordés pour augmenter les flux de gaz de 9 milliards de mètres cubes supplémentaires par an d’ici 2023-2024, haussant l’approvisionnement de l’Italie qui dépend des approvisionnements russes. De plus, le gazoduc, stratégiquement situé, alimente les besoins en gaz naturel de l’Afrique du Nord et de l’Europe.



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