Supply chain : les Etats-Unis peuvent-ils faire sans la Chine ?
Par Ibrahima DIALLO
20 août 2022 / 11:42

Lors du Supply Chain Ministerial Forum, sous couvert d’une coopération entre 18 pays pour réduire les perturbations de la supply chain mondiale, les États-Unis et leurs alliés semblent envisager des chaînes d’approvisionnement excluant la Chine.

Organisé fin juillet aux États-Unis par le président américain Joe Biden, le Supply Chain Ministerial Forum est « l’exemple le plus récent des efforts de l’administration Biden pour minimiser les perturbations de la chaîne d’approvisionnement et réduire les coûts pour les familles américaines grâce à la diplomatie et au leadership », indique la Maison Blanche.

19 partenaires économiques (les pays Allemagne, Australie, Brésil, Canada, République démocratique du Congo, Costa Rica, Corée du Sud, Espagne, États-Unis, France, Inde, Indonésie, Italie, Japon, Mexique, Pays-Bas, Royaume-Uni, Singapour ainsi que l’Union européenne) ont ainsi co-signé une déclaration pour travailler ensemble à réduire les perturbations et goulots d’étranglement dans les supply chains mondiales, tout en œuvrant pour la résilience à long terme.

Contrer la Chine ?

Premier des engagements : jouer la transparence, en faisant avancer le partage d’informations entre les pays et en mettant en place des alertes sur les problématiques potentielles, émergentes ou systémiques. La déclaration insiste aussi sur l’importance de la diversification des approvisionnements de chaque pays.

Le texte appelle à encourager les business plus responsables et vertueux (sans travail forcé, avec des matériaux recyclées, en phase avec l’économie circulaire ou la bioéconomie), tout en suivant les objectifs internationaux de l’UNFCCC (United nations framework convention on climate change), ainsi que l’Accord de Paris.

Reste que si l’intention est louable, la déclaration ne précise pas d’échéances ou d’objectifs à atteindre. Selon certains experts, les États-Unis intensifient leurs efforts, dans le but d’évincer la production chinoise des chaînes d’approvisionnement mondiales.

En mai, l’administration Biden a en effet lancé une initiative commerciale majeure appelée Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF) avec certains alliés. Cette décision a été interprétée par beaucoup comme ayant l’intention d’étendre le leadership économique américain dans la région indo-pacifique pour contrer la Chine.

Miser sur le « friend shoring »

En juillet dernier, la secrétaire américaine au Trésor, Janet Yellen, a appelé les « alliés américains de confiance » à renforcer les relations commerciales pour consolider les chaînes d’approvisionnement mondiales, en présentant notamment le « friend shoring » comme un moyen de réduire les vulnérabilités de la supply chain, tout en luttant contre l’inflation.

Pour elle, le « friend-shoring » consiste à à diversifier les chaînes d’approvisionnement avec un plus grand nombre de partenaires de confiance afin de réduire les risques.

De son côté, Gao Shiwang, directeur de la Chambre de commerce de Chine pour l’importation et l’exportation de machines et de produits électroniques (CCCME), estimait dans le Global Times que « ces dernières années, les États-Unis sont devenus aveugles en utilisant toutes les astuces possibles pour contenir l’essor technologique de la Chine. Que ce soit en se regroupant avec leurs alliés, en mettant en place certains agendas ou en abusant de clauses légales ».

STRATÉGIES LOGISTIQUE

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