Edito – Afrique Subsaharienne : le Nouvel Eldorado du Pétrole dans le monde
Par Thierno DIALLO
19 février 2022 / 14:16

Depuis quelques années, on assiste à un développement du secteur pétrolier en Afrique Subsaharienne. En effet, même si cette région ne prétend pas être une alternative au Moyen-Orient à court terme, les récentes découvertes de gisements de pétrole et de gaz dans certains pays comme le Sénégal, la Mauritanie, la Côte d’Ivoire ou la Gambie, lui accorde une importance particulière. Ainsi, elle devient une cible privilégiée et stratégique pour l’industrie pétrolière mondiale grâce à sa position géographique et surtout historique.

Depuis 2014, d’importants gisements de pétrole et de gaz ont été découverts en Afrique au sud du Sahara notamment au Sénégal. Notamment avec les blocs Rufisque et Sangomar Offshore estimés à 1 milliards de barils de pétrole et les blocs Cayar Deep Offshore estimés à 20 trillions de pieds de cube de gaz naturel – puis en Mauritanie avec une importante réserve de gaz dans le puits Orca-1. De quoi envisager un projet mondial de GNL (gaz naturel liquéfié) .

À cela, s’ajoutent les récentes découvertes de pétrole en Côte d’Ivoire dont le potentiel peut être estimé de manière préliminaire entre environ 1,5 et 2 milliards de barils de pétrole brut d’une part, et d’autre part entre 1 800 et 2 400 milliards de pieds cube de gaz associé – puis en Gambie avec un gisement de pétrole offshore estimé à plus de 1 milliards de barils.

Ces découvertes pétrolières et gazières ont permis d’inscrire l’Afrique subsaharienne dans la géopolitique mondiale des hydrocarbures et d’en faire une des destinations favorites des investisseurs pétroliers internationaux. La production connait une forte croissance : le pétrole, bien qu’en offshore, est relativement facile à produire et il est de bonne qualité.

De plus, l’Afrique au sud du Sahara offre une série d’avantages comparatifs, significatifs, qui en font une zone privilégiée pour les producteurs de pétrole et gaz, notamment par une fiscalité et des termes de contrat d’exploitation intéressants. La région est en outre bien située par rapport aux marchés consommateurs d’Europe et des États- Unis. Ce qui facilite le transport des hydrocarbures et réduit aussi les coûts logistiques.

Néanmoins, force est de reconnaitre que l’utilisation des revenus pétroliers par les pouvoirs en place suscite les interrogations croissantes des opinions publiques en raison de leur impact sur la distribution des richesses, sur le développement économique et sur l’environnement. L’Afrique subsaharienne réussira-t-elle à transformer sa manne pétrolière et gazière en une croissance économique et sociale pour sa population ? Les réponses sont divergentes mais l’espoir est permis.

Thierno Abdoulaye DIALLO : Directeur de publication du Magazine Africa Supply Chain

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